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most interesting rulings

When (part of) a consortium wants to go to court
For many years, the consortium has been a familiar form of cooperation between businesses pursuing public contracts. But this construction still raises legal questions, especially when a dispute arises and goes to court. Because this structure is deceptively similar to an ordinary partnership, sometimes it is unclear which members of a consortium may participate in court proceedings. The Supreme Court of Poland examined this issue in its judgment of 30 June 2021 (case no. III CSKP 75/21).
When (part of) a consortium wants to go to court
Tales from the National Appeal Chamber: Validity of bid bond vs. bid validity period
As the host of the procedure, in the contract documentation the contracting authority should specify the formal and technical requirements for a bid bond. In some procurement procedures, the contracting authority requires contractors to submit a bid bond with a validity extending beyond the bid validity period. In a recently issued ruling, the National Appeal Chamber opined on whether such provisions of the terms of reference are permissible, or are invalid by virtue of law (case no. KIO 3482/21).
Tales from the National Appeal Chamber: Validity of bid bond vs. bid validity period
Tales from the National Appeal Chamber: How to explain a bid price when requested by the contracting authority?
A contractor is obliged to calculate the bid price fairly and factor in everything that follows from the terms of reference, including typical risks associated with contract performance, so that the bid is realistic and allows for proper performance of the contract. If the bid price appears abnormally low or is otherwise questionable, the contractor must explain it in detail.
Tales from the National Appeal Chamber: How to explain a bid price when requested by the contracting authority?
Tales from the National Appeal Chamber: A contest entry inconsistent with the Public Procurement Law or the contest rules will not be considered
The purpose for stating the projected execution costs in the rules for a contest is for contestants to be aware of the contracting authority’s financial capabilities. Contestants should take this value into account when preparing their entries, or their entry will not be considered by the contest jury, the National Appeal Chamber held in its ruling of 10 January 2022 (KIO 3624/21).
Tales from the National Appeal Chamber: A contest entry inconsistent with the Public Procurement Law or the contest rules will not be considered
Pursuing claims for the tort of selective payment of creditors as an alternative method of securing the interests of creditors overlooked by the debtor
In its judgment of 10 February 2021 (case no. I CSKP 33/21), the Supreme Court of Poland considered a cassation appeal by a claimant seeking to prove that it was wronged as a creditor in a fraudulent transfer claim against a third party (governed by Art. 527 and following of the Civil Code). The Supreme Court raised important issues in this debatable decision from the point of view of the safety of participants in commerce, including creditors. Among other things, the court pointed out that the assessment of whether a creditor was harmed within the meaning of Art. 527 §2 is affected by whether the consideration obtained by the debtor was used to satisfy other creditors.
Pursuing claims for the tort of selective payment of creditors as an alternative method of securing the interests of creditors overlooked by the debtor
How to properly formulate a fraudulent transfer claim against a third party: Conclusions from Supreme Court of Poland rulings
A claim to set aside fraudulent transfers to a third party (Art. 527 et seq. of the Civil Code) must precisely identify both the parties and the subject matter in the demand for relief set forth in the statement of claim. It is a mistake to assume that the trial court will seek out the missing elements in the justification for the statement of claim.
How to properly formulate a fraudulent transfer claim against a third party: Conclusions from Supreme Court of Poland rulings
Defects and payment: Handover dilemmas
When is the investor required to pay for the performance of work? How do identified defects relate to this obligation, and when can handover be refused? These questions cause many difficulties in practice and are the basis for numerous, often very complex and long-running disputes. Recently, this issue was addressed by the Supreme Court of Poland. The interpretive direction it affirmed may help market players, including construction contractors, to whom these findings may apply by analogy.
Defects and payment: Handover dilemmas
US secondary sanctions: The Court of Justice interprets the EU Blocking Statute
On 21 December 2021, the Court of Justice of the European Union issued a long-awaited judgment on the interpretation of the EU Blocking Statute in C-124/20, Bank Melli. Although the ruling does not dispel all doubts, it does set the direction for interpretation and shows that even imperfect regulations must be applied.
US secondary sanctions: The Court of Justice interprets the EU Blocking Statute
Careful with seizing an automobile as security
On 21 December 2021, the European Court of Human Rights issued a judgment in Stołkowski v Poland (application no. 58795/15) holding that Poland had violated the applicant’s property rights. The case involved the long impoundment of the applicant’s car as security in a criminal case pending against him, which resulted in decimation of the vehicle’s value. Relying on principles of property rights, the court decided when impoundment of a car may be disproportionate, despite the existing public interest and legal basis for application of such a measure.
Careful with seizing an automobile as security
Liquidated damages in construction contracts not only for works: New resolution of the Supreme Court
On 9 December 2021, the Supreme Court of Poland issued a resolution (case no. III CZP 26/21) examining liquidated damages in construction contracts. In construction, liquidated damages are particularly common, generating serious disputes even threatening the completion of projects. In practice, this instrument is mainly used by investors, and the problem usually affects general contractors and subcontractors.
Liquidated damages in construction contracts not only for works: New resolution of the Supreme Court
Change of the use of a building for residential purposes and conversion of perpetual usufruct into ownership
According to the Conversion Act, existing perpetual usufructuaries acquire ownership of real property if conditions set forth in the act are met. What are these conditions, and is perpetual usufruct of land converted into ownership of the land if the building on the land is subsequently designated for residential purposes?
Change of the use of a building for residential purposes and conversion of perpetual usufruct into ownership
Do I really own my parking spot? On the use of common property in housing communities
In housing communities, the individual parts of common areas (e.g. parking spots, terraces or gardens) are intended for common use by all owners of premises. Often, to avoid problems with use of such areas, division and use of common areas is established at the stage of acquisition of housing units from the developer. This is known as quoad usum division. Can it be changed if circumstances change?
Do I really own my parking spot? On the use of common property in housing communities