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creditor protection

Persons handling a dishonest debtor’s affairs may be liable to creditors
The Supreme Court of Poland regards protection of the creditor’s financial interests as the main purpose of punishing the debtor (and his supporters, if any) for behaviour preventing or diminishing the satisfaction of creditors. Therefore, persons handling the debtor’s affairs can be jointly and severally liable to the creditor.
Persons handling a dishonest debtor’s affairs may be liable to creditors
The creditor as an injured party in criminal proceedings
It often happens that a creditor in a civil relationship is also harmed by the debtor’s action that may qualify as a crime. In such cases, in addition to pursuing claims through civil proceedings, the creditor can also take action against the debtor in criminal proceedings.
The creditor as an injured party in criminal proceedings
Seizure of debtor’s shares in a company: Is it enough?
Often, debtors’ shares in companies are subject to seizure in security or enforcement proceedings. But the debtor does not lose its status as a shareholder in the company after the shares are seized, and the creditor still remains a third party with respect to the company. Thus the debtor may continue to exercise the corporate rights attached to the seized shares, making it difficult for the creditor to satisfy its rights. So it is worth remembering the possibility of challenging corporate resolutions, and appointing a receiver for shares seized in enforcement or security proceedings.
Seizure of debtor’s shares in a company: Is it enough?
Spouse’s consent to incur debt
How should a spouse consent to incurring a debt encumbering the marital community property so that the creditor can obtain security against marital property or execute against marital property? And what should a creditor do if there is no written consent?
Spouse’s consent to incur debt
Abuse of legal personality to the detriment of creditors
Dishonest debtors display great ingenuity in evading their obligations. They may also turn to advisers who, for a hefty fee, provide “sophisticated” ideas to lead creditors astray. Often such ideas involve the creation of legal entities (sometimes a whole group or “chain”) to hide components of the debtor’s business from creditors. Such actions constitute abuse of legal personality for the purpose of harming creditors. Can dishonest debtors and their supporters (including advisers) who knowingly use such methods really rest easy?
Abuse of legal personality to the detriment of creditors
A chain of transactions designed to harm a creditor: Impossible to unwind?
Often, both debtors and creditors believe that if a debtor has initiated a whole chain of transactions to evade paying debts, the case cannot be “unwound” and the creditor is defenceless. But in reality, in such situations dishonest debtors (and their allies) cannot rest easy. Both the legal provisions and the court practice give the creditor a chance to successfully challenge even a whole chain of fraudulent transactions.
A chain of transactions designed to harm a creditor: Impossible to unwind?
A fraudulent transfer claim does not always enjoy priority of satisfaction
In a recent resolution, the Supreme Court of Poland addressed the legal situation of a creditor bringing a fraudulent transfer claim against a third party, compared to other creditors of the third party.
A fraudulent transfer claim does not always enjoy priority of satisfaction
Liability for damages of a person who assists a perpetrator
The effectiveness of pursuing claims for damages for a tort (a wrongful act) often depends on whether the injured party brings an action against a sufficiently wide range of defendants who can be held jointly and severally liable for damages. This range includes those who can be found to have knowingly assisted in causing injury.
Liability for damages of a person who assists a perpetrator
Pursuing claims for the tort of selective payment of creditors as an alternative method of securing the interests of creditors overlooked by the debtor
In its judgment of 10 February 2021 (case no. I CSKP 33/21), the Supreme Court of Poland considered a cassation appeal by a claimant seeking to prove that it was wronged as a creditor in a fraudulent transfer claim against a third party (governed by Art. 527 and following of the Civil Code). The Supreme Court raised important issues in this debatable decision from the point of view of the safety of participants in commerce, including creditors. Among other things, the court pointed out that the assessment of whether a creditor was harmed within the meaning of Art. 527 §2 is affected by whether the consideration obtained by the debtor was used to satisfy other creditors.
Pursuing claims for the tort of selective payment of creditors as an alternative method of securing the interests of creditors overlooked by the debtor
How to properly formulate a fraudulent transfer claim against a third party: Conclusions from Supreme Court of Poland rulings
A claim to set aside fraudulent transfers to a third party (Art. 527 et seq. of the Civil Code) must precisely identify both the parties and the subject matter in the demand for relief set forth in the statement of claim. It is a mistake to assume that the trial court will seek out the missing elements in the justification for the statement of claim.
How to properly formulate a fraudulent transfer claim against a third party: Conclusions from Supreme Court of Poland rulings
Interim relief more expensive than it may seem: Regulations to be amended
From August 2019, the fee for an application for interim relief to secure a monetary claim (e.g. for payment of a specific sum of money) made before a legal action is brought to court has increased significantly. Instead of PLN 100, the fee is equal to one-fourth of the fee that would be payable in a suit on the claim (maximum PLN 50,000). Under certain conditions, the fee for an application for interim relief will be set off against the fee on the document instituting the principal proceeding (statement of claim). However, the provisions allowing for this possibility may give rise to problems of interpretation, and thus the need to incur additional costs.
Interim relief more expensive than it may seem: Regulations to be amended
Identifying and responding to economic fraud
During a crisis, the risk of running a business increases, and not just for “natural” reasons. There is also a growing number of unlawful behaviours by businesses, from incurring obligations they cannot honour to evading their existing liabilities. Too many businesses treat hard times as a great opportunity to shift the risk of their operations to counterparties who aren’t as “clever.”
Identifying and responding to economic fraud