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When a parent acquires a subsidiary: A few words on simplified merger
The Commercial Companies Code contains rules facilitating mergers of companies where there are few owners and little risk of harm to stakeholders, and thus the law allows certain provisions to be waived. But it is essential to apply the regulations properly so that the merger is carried out effectively and can be entered in the National Court Register.
When a parent acquires a subsidiary: A few words on simplified merger
Redemption of shares as an alternative method of exit of a shareholder from a limited-liability company
Participation in a limited-liability company in Poland may end either as a result of acquisition of the shareholder’s shares by another entity or as a result of elimination of the shares, i.e. redemption. This mechanism is more and more common and used for various purposes in the course of M&A transactions consisting in the acquisition of only a portion of a company’s share capital. Then, it becomes an element of the shareholders’ agreement and thus of the articles of association which are to take effect and regulate the rights and obligations of the parties upon completion of the transaction.
Redemption of shares as an alternative method of exit of a shareholder from a limited-liability company
Representative office of a foreign foundation as a means for carrying out charitable activities in Poland
Along with a foundation and a non-profit company, a representative office of a foreign foundation is one of the legal forms through which charitable activities can be carried out in Poland. However, due to a sparsity of regulations, the functioning of representative offices of foundations in Polish law is not entirely clear. The topic is particularly timely, as with the outbreak of war in Ukraine many foreign foundations wanting to operate in Poland have voiced the need to open representative offices here. Previously, such outposts were relatively rare, as there was little need for them.
Representative office of a foreign foundation as a means for carrying out charitable activities in Poland
Will the Holding Law increase the effectiveness of supervisory boards?
The act amending the Commercial Companies Code which will come into force on 13 October 2022 not only establishes rules for the operation of formalised corporate groups, but also modifies some rules for the functioning of corporate bodies of companies, including supervisory boards. The question is whether the change will have a positive impact on the work of supervisory bodies.
Will the Holding Law increase the effectiveness of supervisory boards?
Some practical remarks on merging partnerships with companies
One of the ways to reduce business costs in a corporate group may be to combine multiple entities into a single entity—a merger. Although all types of companies and partnerships can take part in a merger, the regulations regarding mergers involving partnerships are sometimes unclear, and mistakes during the merger process can result in the court’s refusal to register the merger.
Some practical remarks on merging partnerships with companies
Crowdfunding: A way for companies to raise capital
After July 2022 amendments to the law, companies can now benefit from crowdfunding. As usual, the devil is in the details.
Crowdfunding: A way for companies to raise capital
Time for an ESG strategy
Two major proposals for ESG directives—the Corporate Sustainability Due Diligence Directive (CSDDD) and the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD)—are currently working their way through EU institutions. Soon, more and more companies will have to take environmental, social and governance issues into consideration in the course of their day-to-day operations if they wish to stay in business and remain competitive. It is high time for companies to develop and implement an ESG strategy.
Time for an ESG strategy
Private subscription of shares in a non-public company
A private subscription is a convenient method to raise share capital. How to carry it out in practice?
 
Private subscription of shares in a non-public company
Listing of entities for Polish and EU sanctions
At the EU and national levels, severe economic sanctions are in place against many entities, mainly Russian. After entry into force of the Sanctions Act (the Act on Special Solutions for Countering Support of Aggression Against Ukraine and Protecting National Security of 13 April 2022), first published on 26 April 2022, the Polish sanctions list maintained by the Minister of the Interior and Administration took on particular significance. The purpose of its creation is clear: to counter support for Russia’s aggression against Ukraine. Nevertheless, the criteria for inclusion in the list are not clear-cut, and the procedure for issuing a listing decision greatly limits the right to defend against wrongful inclusion, as Polish entities can easily be included in the list.
Listing of entities for Polish and EU sanctions
New law on corporate groups enters into force in October 2022
An act amending the Commercial Companies Code was published in the Journal of Laws on 12 April 2022. It establishes the rules for operation of capital groups in Poland and modifies certain rules for operation of corporate authorities. The act will enter into force six months after publication.
New law on corporate groups enters into force in October 2022
The business judgment rule
The management board conducts the affairs of the company, represents the company externally, and under certain circumstances can be liable to the company and its creditors. Management board members should act with due care, which corresponds to the standard of care that would be observed by a conscientious merchant in dealings of a given sort. Failure to observe due care can lead to liability of members of the corporate authorities—and conversely, compliance with due care can shield them from such liability. An amendment to the Commercial Companies Code will make certain changes to these rules.
The business judgment rule
Binding instructions for conduct of the company’s affairs under the new Holding Law
Until now, corporate officers have had to act solely in the best interests of their own company, which has made the operation of corporate groups difficult. As of October 2022, it will be possible to issue binding instructions to subsidiaries affiliated with formalised corporate groups. What must such an instruction contain, can the execution of such an instruction be refused, and what if the company suffers a loss as a result of execution of binding instructions?
Binding instructions for conduct of the company’s affairs under the new Holding Law