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litigation

Disqualification of a judge in a case over a mortgage denominated in Swiss francs is not as obvious as it seems
Can a judge impartially rule in the case of a bank from which the judge has taken out a mortgage loan? Is the mere fact of holding a mortgage in Swiss francs a basis for disqualifying a judge from hearing cases seeking invalidation of mortgage loans indexed or denominated in that currency? And why is it easier to disqualify a Supreme Court judge than a lower-court judge?
Disqualification of a judge in a case over a mortgage denominated in Swiss francs is not as obvious as it seems
Traps when notifying the insured of the general conditions of insurance
The insurer incorrectly notified the insured of the general conditions of insurance. Could this result in the insurer being required to pay compensation, even though the general conditions of insurance state that there is an exception excluding the insurer’s liability?
Traps when notifying the insured of the general conditions of insurance
A guide on how (not) to write jurisdictional clauses
In agreements with foreign counterparties, provisions on which courts have jurisdiction to resolve disputes are standard, but they are often drafted by rote, without deeper reflection. If a dispute unexpectedly occurs, this can lead to serious problems. Based on our experience, we suggest how to avoid the worst mistakes.
A guide on how (not) to write jurisdictional clauses
What conditions can be imposed on the obligation to pay a fee to a construction contractor?
In its judgment of 2 June 2021 (case no. II CSKP 7/21), the Supreme Court of Poland ruled on whether payment of the fee to a contractor for construction works can be conditional. This ruling is of great practical importance, as it comments on which contractual provisions regarding the fee are permissible and which are prohibited and thus invalid. This is essential reading for contractors and investors alike, providing valuable tips on how to frame construction contracts to ensure compliance with the regulations while affording proper legal protection.
What conditions can be imposed on the obligation to pay a fee to a construction contractor?
Acknowledgement of debt: What does the debtor’s behaviour mean?
Recently, the Supreme Court of Poland commented on the subject of acknowledgement of debt, and at the same time gave some general guidance on how to interpret a debtor’s statements and behaviour. This is a key practical issue, as action by the debtor can cause interruption of running of the statute of limitations on the claim. Therefore, debtors should be cautious about what they state to creditors. Conversely, in many cases, creditors can take advantage of the debtor’s behaviour to improve their legal position.
Acknowledgement of debt: What does the debtor’s behaviour mean?
Coverage required for third-party liability insurance of healthcare providers
According to Polish and EU law, performance of certain services requires civil liability insurance. Such an obligation is imposed on entities performing healthcare activities, for which Polish law has specified the minimum amount of coverage. Can such coverage be exhausted by a medical loss?
Coverage required for third-party liability insurance of healthcare providers
When (part of) a consortium wants to go to court
For many years, the consortium has been a familiar form of cooperation between businesses pursuing public contracts. But this construction still raises legal questions, especially when a dispute arises and goes to court. Because this structure is deceptively similar to an ordinary partnership, sometimes it is unclear which members of a consortium may participate in court proceedings. The Supreme Court of Poland examined this issue in its judgment of 30 June 2021 (case no. III CSKP 75/21).
When (part of) a consortium wants to go to court
Can a contractual penalty be cut by 99%? When?
Contractual penalties are a common instrument for sanctioning failures to perform non-monetary obligations (e.g. completing construction on time). Contractual penalties can be cut by the courts, but generally the Polish Civil Code indicates only the grounds for mitigating a contractual penalty. The details must be sought in the legal literature and the case law. Indeed, the regulations do not even provide guidance on how much contractual penalties can be reduced. Thus each case should be treated individually, guided by the principles discussed below.
Can a contractual penalty be cut by 99%? When?
Will high court fees for conciliation be cut?
Increased court fees for an application for a summons to conciliation have been in effect since August 2019. They were intended to prevent the use of settlement proceedings solely to interrupt the running of the limitations period. Has this effect been achieved?
Will high court fees for conciliation be cut?
Should we be preparing for a Russian-Belarusian investment arbitration offensive?
After Russia threatened to expropriate foreign investors withdrawing from that country because of the war with Ukraine started by Russia and Belarus, we have seen an avalanche of commentaries encouraging wronged enterprises to prepare lawsuits against Russia in investment arbitration proceedings.
Should we be preparing for a Russian-Belarusian investment arbitration offensive?
Interrogation of a foreigner as a witness before the Polish civil court
A summons from a Polish civil court to testify at a hearing identifies the parties to the dispute, what is at stake in the dispute, and the court before which the case is pending. At the end of the summons there is a notice of the penalties for failing to comply with the summons. How to react to such summons and what it means in practice for a person who received it?
Interrogation of a foreigner as a witness before the Polish civil court
What is “use of a motor vehicle,” and what does it mean to the insurance industry?
The scope of the insured’s liability (and thus, the insurance companies’ auxiliary liability) is affected not only by national law, but also by EU legislation and case law regarding “use of a motor vehicle.” After a recent Supreme Court resolution, a contradiction between the two has emerged.
What is “use of a motor vehicle,” and what does it mean to the insurance industry?